Russia is an integration with center Asia countries. This country has always been concerned about the spread of terrorism and drug trafficking in Afghanistan. Hence, with the collapse of the previous regime of Taliban, Russia tried to expand his political influence in Afghanistan. However, the impressive presence of US and NATO forces was a barrier against this action of Russia. With that, Russian officials have tried to play a role in afghan political interactions from diplomatic and non-diplomatic channels. However, Russia has expressed concern about the threats form in Afghanistan and the threats from Afghanistan in the Central Eurasia region.
Security threats from within Afghanistan
Russia’s role in Afghanistan’s relations from 2001 – 2006
After collapse of previous Talban regime in Afghanistan, the Russia federation took a series of measures to reduce the national security of that country. The measures was include the beginning of a common struggle with the US and NATO against terrorism and extremism and drug trafficking in Afghanistan. Along with this, Russia has restored to economic investments, technical assistance and humanitarian assistance in order to expand its role in afghan political interactions. Afghanistan has become a safe nesting on terrorists and drug production, according to different facilities. Hence, NATO and Russia had sometimes expressed its concern from increasing terrorist groups and drug trafficking from Afghanistan to Russia and European countries. Although the presence of NATO forces in Russia’s peripheral regions was in contradiction with Russia security doctrine, but increasing drug addicts inside Russia and the presence of terrorist groups on the borders of the country caused Russia to used NATO as a shield securing their security.
After the September 11, 2001 events, the Russia federation made its policy on cooperation with the United States and its allies. This policy allowed the United State to use Russian air bases in central Asian countries to fight against terrorism in Afghanistan. Along with this, the opening of Russia airspace for US troops during the attack of Afghanistan was to increase security information, the increase the military assistance to the coalition forces in the northern coalition. However, Russia and NATO conducted joint meetings in 2002 and in Rome and Moscow in order to accelerate the process of fighting terrorism. These meetings carried out with the presence of senior officials. Along with this, Russia took an aggressive approach to play a prominent role in the political, economics and security relations of Afghanistan, in this purpose, a number of Russia diplomats entered Afghanistan, bur as soon as the active presence and involvement in Afghanistan’s relations with the United States. He considered the defensive approach. Russia’s foreign policy against Afghanistan between 2003 and 2006 had has been stated.
Russian’s role in Afghanistan’s relations after 2007
Russia has become more active in Afghanistan’s relations, after 2007. Although the relations between Russia and Afghanistan returned to the Soviet Union, but after a short stop, relations between these two countries have been overwhelmed during Hamid Karzai’s government. In the past two decades, Russia has made many military aids to Afghanistan. This assistance was military equipment, training of afghan experts and troops, whose budget paid by United States. On the one hand, Afghanistan has continually benefited from Russia humanitarian as stance after 2001. This assistance, which included wheat shipment, have been worth millions of dollars. However, after the failure of the role of the USA in the fight against terrorism, Russian has made its role in the relation of Afghanistan. The country wad held by the Russian, USA, Pakistan and China conference to accelerate the peace process of Afghanistan in regional relations. Along with this, the provision of the leadership of the leadership of the Taliban groups with afghan political leaders in Moscow, with Pakistan collision, has told from other Russian role on relations between the region and Afghanistan to reduce the activity of terrorist and drug groups in Afghanistan.
Security threats from Afghanistan to Russia in Eurasia
Russian’s political actions known in the central Eurasia and Asia in the peripheral region and the strategic depth of the Russia. This area faces actual and potential threats from Afghanistan. The Russia federation is worried about the expansion of terrorist activities through this region into its borders. Hence, Russia emphasized its cooperation with the United States and NATO to address its concern in Central Eurasia. Providing the context of the military and civilian equipment through Russia to Afghanistan and the formation of security relations in accelerating the process of combating terrorism in Afghanistan has been from prominent measures of Russia in Central Isopoda. Along with this, the Russian president Vladimir Putin supported the Security Council resolution in 2001, to launch anti- terrorist operations by the International peace forces (ISAF) in Afghanistan. It should noted that transfer of equipment for USA and NATO troops was further done through the Pakistan border. However, with darkening of the USA relations with Pakistan, Russia provided the ground for transfers. Russia with this action, could won points from the west, and, on the other hand, provided its economic interest from transit of this equipment. With that, Russia has always been concerned about the presence of USA and NATO forces in Afghanistan and Central Asia. However, this concern was not highlighted due to the presence of terrorist groups and drug trafficking. Drug trafficking through the central Eurasia region to Russia is a passive threat to Russian national security. Although NATO’s presence in this area was told to smuggle drug to Russia and Europe. However, Russia authorities were failing from NATO’s performance in the fight against drug trafficking. Along with this, in some cases, the charges have entered Russia to support Russian and its support (NATO) in drug trafficking. According to Russia officials, drug production in Afghanistan has increased over previous years. The Russian officials added a large part of the afghan people to livelihoods from the drug production and its struggle is allergic. On this, NATO did not want to hate people.
Russia’s security measure in the Central Eurasia were the formation of security arrangements in the Central Asia region, from another strategy of the Russian federation. In order to engage in the central countries in security relations, Russia created a collaborative cooperation and security agreement. The spread of terrorism and extremism on the borders of China and Russia had made the two countries to have cooperation. The Russian federation was to force other members of Shanghai cooperation to make the fight against terrorism to the mail goal of this organization (Shanghai). On this in 2003, the preventive operations of the class security organization (channel) began with the Russian initiative. In 2010, the cooperation agreement signed in a joint struggle between Russia, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Along with this, the Russia federation made the draft of Shanghai cooperation organization strategy to fight against terrorism and drug trafficking in 2011. At the same time, it attempt to Afghanistan, including multilateral cooperation in combating terrorism and drug trafficking.
The rotation in Russian foreign policy
Can ultimately say that the principles of Russian foreign policy, in general, were from the reality in the international system and in particular in those countries around it. Russia was trying consolidating meaningful relations between the principles of realism and its national security doctrine. Along with this, Russian foreign policy has developed with the practice of pragmatism and efficiency of the economy and its national security. The Russian military doctrine has also designed to deal with terrorism and threats against national security of Russian countries. Russian foreign policy from 2004 to 2014 was approach to cooperation with western troops in the fight against terrorism and drug trafficking. Russia in the transportation and transit part with western countries until2014, in partnership. However, after that, the disputes prevented the strategic cooperation between the two countries. Russia lasted two goals of this cooperation: first, the security of the region and the eradication of terrorism by western troops. The second expected to retreat in other parts of the world on order to cooperate Russian in Afghanistan’s relations. However, western cooperation with Russia is call dramatic and tactical so that it could show the region that there was major international coalition on the issue of Afghanistan. Russia’s foreign policy coincided with the emergence of national unity governance in its domestic and foreign issues. With the onset of the work of national unity, a number of concerns for ISIL groups in the northern regions of Afghanistan is raise by Russia. Bu this concerns was ignored by the afghan government. This act of afghan officials increased Russian concerned until Russia made changes in their foreign policy. In the international dimension, the Syrian and Ukrainian crisis increased the tensions between America and Russian. Top tensions between America and Russia led to near China and Russia.
Afghanistan is due to the shelter for terrorisms groups and drug trafficking in the center of Russian foreign policy. The Russian national security document as an important security document emphasize the fight against any kind of threats against its national security. The Russian federation has taken measured to reduce the threats from Afghanistan and central Eurasia region to national security. Theses measures for equipping afghan troops, education and granting military assistance, humanitarian assistance, health materials, providing relations led by the Taliban group to resolve threats from within Afghanistan. To control the threats in the central Eurasia region, the organization created Shanghai cooperation. Along with this, signing an agreement between the countries of the Central Asia region, the security strategy plan for the countries of the region is a prominent approach to the fight against terrorism.
Note: The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of South Asia Strategic Research Center (GASAM)